Olfactory identification disorders due to Alzheimer's disease: A new test from France to Quebec.

TitreOlfactory identification disorders due to Alzheimer's disease: A new test from France to Quebec.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsPayne M, Manera V, Robert P, Vandersteen C, Beauchet O, Galery K, Sacco G, Fabre R, Gros A
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2022
Mots-clésAlzheimer Disease, France, Humans, Neuropsychological Tests, Olfaction Disorders, Quebec, Smell

Olfactory identification disorder is regarded as an early marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of similar diagnostic significance of biological or cognitive markers. Premature damage of the entorhinal olfactory cortex, the hippocampus and the orbitofrontal cortex characterize AD and suggest a specific impairment of olfactory identification. The use of psychophysical olfactory identification tests in clinical diagnostic practice is therefore strongly recommended, but not required. As these widespread tests are rarely used, an innovative test, adapted to this target group has been developed. It has been used and validated in a routine care protocol at different Memory Centers in France and in Quebec, Canada. A total of 157 participants were recruited: including 63 Alzheimer's patients and 94 healthy controls. The test was composed of 14 odorants diluted into 4 different concentrations. A computer interface generated randomization of 6 odors per participant and the automatic calculation of identification scores, of perceptual thresholds and of composite scores. All participants underwent a Mini Mental Scale Examination within the previous three months or on the same day of the olfactory test. The Alzheimer's patients had a score between 20 and 30 and healthy controls participants had a score above 28 without any loss of points on recalled items. The results show that our olfactory identification test is able to significantly differentiate Alzheimer's patients from healthy controls (p < 0.001), and to distinguish the French population tested from the Quebec population (p < 0.001). This study highlights an olfactory identification disorder as a target for early diagnosis of AD. Its cultural qualities make it a potential candidate for differentiated calibration between France and Quebec.

Alternate JournalPLoS One
PubMed ID35377902
PubMed Central IDPMC8979441